Work Permits for Minors (Individuals Under Age 18) (2022)

The Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) understands that the mandated closure of Pennsylvania schools due to the COVID-19 response effort may be causing some uncertainty for the remainder of the 2019-20 school year, particularly for minors who wish to apply for a work permit and for school district personnel responsible for issuing work permits.

PDE and the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry (L&I) have temporarily modified the process for applying for a work permit to enable work permits to be issued during school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Minors (defined in the PennsylvaniaChild Labor Act as an individual under 18 years of age), their parents or guardians, school district personnel, and others directly involved in serving those individuals covered under the Pennsylvania Child Labor Act may follow the temporarily modified process during school closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic outlined below.

This modified process is only effective for the 2019-20 school year and while schools are closed due to COVID-19 pandemic. This process does not permanently replace previously established Child Labor Law procedures, which continue to serve as a guide and summary of the major provisions of the PennsylvaniaChild Labor Act. Questions pertaining to compliance with employment laws and regulations should be directed to the L&I Bureau of Labor Law Compliance.

PDE will update this document with additional guidance as needed.

Page last updated: 10 a.m. on April 16, 2020

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Does a student still need a work permit to work while schools are closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic?

Yes. Even during the COVID-19 pandemic, the PennsylvaniaChild Labor Act requires all minors, which is any person under age 18, to obtain a work permit from the school district in which they reside, regardless of whether they are enrolled in the school district, attend a charter school or non-public/private school, or participate in a home education program.

Can minors work during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Yes. Minors may work during the pandemic, provided the work is consistent with any restrictions on employers during the COVID-19 pandemic under the Governor's orders. In all cases, when an employer hires a minor, the employer must notify the issuing officer at the student's school district of residence within five (5) days of such employment.

Does a student need a work permit before they have a job?

A student can apply for a work permit without having a job offer. They also can apply for and accept a job offer prior to obtaining a work permit. However, a student may not begin working until they receive a work permit from the school district in which they reside.

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Where does a student get a work permit if school is closed for the remainder of the 2019-20 academic year?

School districts are responsible for issuing work permits, even when school is closed.

Minors who reside in Pennsylvania and plan to work in Pennsylvania will apply for a work permit from the school district in which they reside, regardless of whether the minor is enrolled in the school district, attends a charter school or non-public/private school, or participates in a home education program. Minors experiencing homelessness may apply to the district in which they are enrolled.

Minors who reside in Pennsylvania but intend to work in another state will apply for a work permit from the state in which they will be working and should contact the school district in which the employer is located in that state.

A minor who resides in another state and plans to work in Pennsylvania will apply for a work permit from the school district in Pennsylvania in which the employer is located.

How does a student apply for a work permit, given social distancing requirements?

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L&I has waived the in-person requirements of the work permit process for the remainder of the 2019-20 academic year and while the Governor's stay at home order is in effect.

The steps below describe the temporary modified procedures.

  1. The student will download and complete the electronic Work Permit application from the PDE website. Students unable to access the electronic application should call or write to the school district to request that a paper application be mailed to them.
  2. The student's parent or legal guardian electronically signs the PDF or signs the paper application.

    NOTE: Not all students need approval from a parent or guardian to apply for a work permit. For example, no signature is required if the minor provides official proof that they have graduated high school. More information about these exceptions is available on the Pennsylvania Child Labor Law section of PDE's website.

  3. The student attaches any required documents, such as a proof of age document, to the completed application and submits it to the school district.
  • If applying electronically, the student may attach digital copies, such as a scan or digital photograph.
  • If applying by mail with a paper application, the student should include photocopies of the required documents.
  • If an applicant is unable to provide a required document with their application, they can present it to the school district issuing officer at the next stage of the process.

    A list of required documentation is found on the Pennsylvania Child Labor Law section of PDE's website. Please be aware that all required documentation must still be submitted and reviewed; the temporary change relates only to the format in which those documents may be submitted to, and accepted by, the school district.

  • Upon receipt of the application and documentation, the issuing officer at the school district schedules an appointment with the student that adheres to social distancing guidelines.

    Appointments may be held virtually by way of videoconference. Social distancing also could be observed with a solid barrier between the issuing officer and applicant, such as a closed car window or clear glass door.

    The purpose of the appointment is to enable the applicant to "appear before" the issuing officer, in accordance with the Child Labor Act, while following social distancing guidelines. It also enables the issuing officer to verify a proof of age document if one is required but the student was not able to provide a copy with the application.

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  • The school district issuing officer ensures that all the documents required by law have been examined, approved and filed, and all conditions and requirements for issuing a permit have been fulfilled, and then mails to the minor a wallet-sized, paper work permit bearing a number, the date of issuance, and signature of the issuing officer.
  • The student signs the work permit when received and shows it to the employer, who makes a copy for their records. The student retains the original work permit.
  • Can a school district issue a work permit electronically?

    No. Work permits must continue to be issued on a wallet-sized piece of paper, which the student should keep after their employer makes a copy for their records. Therefore, the district will need to mail the permit to the student.

    Can issuing officers process work permit applications remotely during the period of mandated school closures?

    Yes. School districts' issuing officers can temporarily issue work permits remotely during the pandemic. Districts should facilitate this temporary process by identifying an email address, mailing address, and phone number on their website so that inquiries and applications are directed to the issuing officer at the remote work location. Districts should ensure issuing officers working remotely are able to communicate with applicants via a secure school email address and videoconference, and have access to work permits, postage, and secure file storage for both paper applications and digital applications.

    How many hours may a minor work, since schools are closed the remainder of the 2019-20 academic year and many school districts have shifted to remote learning?

    The number of hours a minor is permitted to work depends on the minor's age and whether school is in session, as stipulated in the PennsylvaniaChild Labor Act.Per guidance from L&I on work restrictions for minors during the COVID-19 pandemic, school is considered to be in session if the local school district requires minor students to attend classes at a physical location or to participate in distance learning. Please review the PennsylvaniaChild Labor Act for specific information on the number of hours a particular minor may work when school is not in session. For all minors who are Pennsylvania residents, the "local school district" is the school district in which the student resides, regardless of whether they attend a public school within that district or another type of institution. For a minor who works in Pennsylvania but resides in another state, the "local school district" is the district in which the minor's job is located.

    (Video) Training: Work Permits & hiring minors


    FAQs

    How many hours can an under 18 work without a break? ›

    If you're over school leaving age but under 18, you can't usually work for more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week. You're usually entitled to: a 30 minute rest break if you work for more than 4 hours and 30 minutes in a day.

    How many hours can a 17 year old work a day? ›

    Young people can't work more than eight hours a day or more than 40 hours a week. Unlike adults, there is no opt out for this. If you work for two different employers on the same day, you still can't work more than a total of eight hours. In England you must be in part-time education or training until your 18th ...

    Can a 17 year old work night shift? ›

    There are special rules for young workers aged 16 and 17. Young workers may not ordinarily work at night between 10pm and 6am, or between 11pm and 7am if the contract of employment provides for work after 10pm. However, exceptions apply in particular circumstances in the case of certain kinds of employment.

    How many hours can a 16 year old work a week? ›

    15 to 16 year olds can only work for up to 8 hours per day and up to 35 hours a week in the holidays.

    Can under 18s work after 10pm? ›

    Check what times of day you can work

    In most jobs, you can't normally be asked to work between 10pm and 6am. If your contract says you have to work until 11pm, that's alright but you shouldn't start work before 7am the next morning. You can be asked to work at other times in exceptional circumstances.

    What's the minimum wage for a 16 year old? ›

    From April 2022 the NMW is: Apprentice £4.81 an hour. Age 16-17 - £4.81 an hour.

    What is the minimum age to work? ›

    Working Age

    You are permitted to employ children and young persons aged 13 years to 16 years, but take note of restrictions on the type of work that children and young persons may perform. For example, a company cannot employ workers below the age of 16 in any workplace with harmful or dangerous working conditions.

    How many hours is full-time? ›

    Definition of Full-Time Employee

    For purposes of the employer shared responsibility provisions, a full-time employee is, for a calendar month, an employee employed on average at least 30 hours of service per week, or 130 hours of service per month.

    What is minimum wage for a 15 year old? ›

    There is no minimum wage for under 16s, but as of April 2017, young people aged 16 to 17 have a minimum wage of £4.05 per hour.

    How can I work at 5am? ›

    How to start work at 5 a.m.
    1. Go to bed earlier. If you want to feel well-rested for a workday that starts at 5 a.m., you need to make sure you're getting enough sleep. ...
    2. Limit your phone time. ...
    3. Turn off notifications. ...
    4. Place your alarm clock far away. ...
    5. Establish a morning routine. ...
    6. Reflect on the benefits.
    8 Jun 2021

    How many hours is day shift? ›

    a) The first shift (day shift) shall begin at 7:00 AM or 8:00AM. Employees on the “Day Shift" shall receive eight (8) hours pay at the regular hourly rate for eight (8) hours work. b) The second shift (swing shift) shall be worked between the hours of 3:30 PM and 12:30 AM.

    What is the shortest shift you can legally work? ›

    3 hours is the minimum for most states across the country.

    How long can a 15 year old work? ›

    18 hours in a school week; 8 hours on a non-school day; 40 hours in a non-school week; and. between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m., except from June 1 through Labor Day, when nighttime work hours are extended to 9 p.m.

    How many hours can a 14 year old work on a Saturday? ›

    A 14-year-old may not work for more than five hours on a Saturday or any other day (other than a Sunday) during the holidays. On a Sunday, a 14-year-old may only work two hours.

    How many hours can you work a week? ›

    By law an employee cannot work more than an average 48 hours a week, unless either of the following apply: they agree to work more hours (known as 'opting out' of the weekly limit) they do a job not covered by the law on working hours (sometimes known as the 'working time regulations')

    How many hours can a 14 year old work? ›

    Children aged 14 or over can do light work during the school holidays where the hours do not exceed 7 in any day or 35 in any week.
    ...
    Maximum weekly working hours for children under 16.
    Age14 years of age15 years of age
    Holidays35 hours35 hours
    Work experience40 hours40 hours
    1 more row
    18 Aug 2022

    How many hours can a 16 year old apprentice work? ›

    How many hours can an apprentice work? Apprentices can start work as young as 16 and apprenticeships are generally for a minimum of 30 hours per week.

    How old do you have to be to work at Mcdonald's? ›

    Minimum age is 16.

    What is the real Living Wage? ›

    So, what are the five key differences? The real Living Wage is... based on the cost of living. The real Living Wage is the only wage rate calculated based on the true cost of living, whereas the National Living Wage is a % of average earnings.

    What jobs can u get at 13 UK? ›

    A part-time job can be a great way for teenagers to learn valuable skills, gain independence and make a little money.
    ...
    Here is our list of the top 13 jobs suitable for 13-year-olds:
    • Weekend shop work. ...
    • Babysitting. ...
    • Paper rounds. ...
    • Gardening or lawn mowing. ...
    • House sitting. ...
    • Pet sitting. ...
    • Tutoring. ...
    • Selling.
    25 Jun 2021

    Can I put my child on payroll? ›

    Breaking Down The Payroll Deduction

    As stated before, when you're hiring your children, the IRS allows business owners to pay their children up to the standard deduction amount without having to pay into Social Security or Medicare.

    Can I work if I am under 18? ›

    Generally speaking, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) sets the minimum age for employment (14 years for non-agricultural jobs), restricts the hours youth under the age of 16 may work, and prohibits youth under the age of 18 from being employed in hazardous occupations.

    Should teenagers have a part time job? ›

    It gives them an understanding of the rules of the workplace and teaches good timekeeping, reliability, responsibility and working as part of a team. It also helps to build their confidence. 'Some young people build a career out of their part-time job. '

    Can under 18 work in a bar? ›

    16- and 17-year-olds who work in a licensed bar, restaurant or shop can serve alcohol, as long as the licence holder or bar manager has approved the sale and it's in line with any other restrictions set out in the license.

    Is 70 hours a week a lot? ›

    Working 72–76 hours per week is not rare, but working that amount of time and feeling balanced is quite rare.

    Is 55 hours a week too much? ›

    Working 55 hours or more per week is a serious health hazard,” added Dr Maria Neira, Director, Department of Environment, Climate Change and Health, at the World Health Organization. “It's time that we all, governments, employers, and employees wake up to the fact that long working hours can lead to premature death”.

    How long is a full time job in a day? ›

    In the United States, the "standard workweek" is generally considered to be 40 hours, with employees working five days a week, for eight hours per day. Some employers consider 37.5 hours to be full time, giving 30-minute unpaid lunch breaks each day, while others give an hour and consider 35 hours to be full-time.

    How do I figure out my salary? ›

    If you want to determine the gross wages per month, you will simply divide the employee's annual salary by 12. For example, if the employee makes $55,000 per year and you want to calculate a monthly gross wage, you would divide the total salary by 12. This equals out to a monthly gross wage of approximately $4,583.

    What's the minimum wage in USA? ›

    The federal minimum wage for covered nonexempt employees is $7.25 per hour. Many states also have minimum wage laws. In cases where an employee is subject to both the state and federal minimum wage laws, the employee is entitled to the higher of the two minimum wages.

    Can a 12 year old work UK? ›

    In the UK it is illegal for anyone under the age of 13 to have to a job. However, if you're turning 13 soon, why don't you register with us now and then start applying when you're the right age to work. Don't worry; we have plenty of jobs for 12-year-olds ideas for you so that you can earn some extra pocket money.

    Am I entitled to a break on a 6 hour shift? ›

    How many breaks should I get? You have a right to: A 15 minute break when you have worked more than 4 ½ hours. A 30 minute break when you have worked more than 6 hours, which can include the first 15-minute break.

    What time can a 17 year old work until Scotland? ›

    What times of day can you work. If you're over school leaving age and under 18, you can't usually work between 10pm and 6am. If your contract says you have to work until 11pm that's alright but you shouldn't start work before 7am the next morning. You can be asked to work at other times in exceptional circumstances.

    What time can a 17 year old work until UK? ›

    It's against the law for anyone aged under 18 to work between midnight and 4am, even if they do one of the jobs above.

    Can I work 6 hours without a break UK? ›

    Workers have the right to one uninterrupted 20 minute rest break during their working day, if they work more than 6 hours a day. This could be a tea or lunch break. The break doesn't have to be paid - it depends on their employment contract.

    How many hours is full-time? ›

    Definition of Full-Time Employee

    For purposes of the employer shared responsibility provisions, a full-time employee is, for a calendar month, an employee employed on average at least 30 hours of service per week, or 130 hours of service per month.

    Can you work 60 hours a week? ›

    A 60-hour working week can help you earn a higher salary and shows dedication to your job and the company you work for. But before you commit to these long hours, make sure you maintain a healthy work-life balance.

    How many days in a row can you work without a day off? ›

    You can work up to 12 days in a row in California without a day off. Here's how it breaks down: California employees are entitled to one day of rest in one workweek. The workweek can start on any day of the week.

    What is Scotland's minimum wage? ›

    The real Living Wage & government minimum wage rates (1 April 2022)
    Real Living Wage (UK)National Living WageNational Minimum Wage
    18+23+Under 18
    £9.90£9.50£4.81

    What is minimum wage for a 15 year old? ›

    There is no minimum wage for under 16s, but as of April 2017, young people aged 16 to 17 have a minimum wage of £4.05 per hour.

    What is Scotland's minimum wage 2022? ›

    From April 2022, the National Living/Minimum Wage rates are as follows: The rate for workers aged 23 and over will increase from £8.91 to £9.50. The rate for 21-22 years olds will increase from £8.36 to £9.18. The rate for 18-20 years olds will increase from £6.56 to £6.83.

    Can I get a full-time job at 17 instead of college? ›

    Some teenagers wonder if it is okay to leave school or college with the intention of working on a job full-time. In reality, it is not legal to get a full-time job before a student hits the school leaving age. However, this does not mean young people cannot work on a part-time job if they really want to.

    Can a 17 year old be self employed? ›

    The short answer: yes, you can. You will have extra challenges ahead of you, because until you're 18 you'll have barriers to setting up your own business bank account, getting credit and raising business finance. As well as balancing business with education you will be limited to the type of work you can do as a minor.

    How old do you have to be to work at Mcdonald's? ›

    Minimum age is 16.

    How long of a break for a 10 hour shift? ›

    You would receive two 15 minute breaks and one 30 minute lunch. In a 10 hour shift you get 2 breaks and a lunch.

    Is 8 hours between shifts legal? ›

    In general, workers are entitled to at least 11 hours rest per day, at least one day off each week, and a rest break during the shift if it is longer than six hours. For an adult worker, that minimum rest break is 20 minutes uninterrupted.

    Do I legally have to take a lunch break? ›

    Employees working over 6 hours a day have the right to at least a 20-minute break. While this is the legal minimum requirement, you're allowed to offer longer or more frequent rest periods. It can be worthwhile including your staff's rights to breaks within your employment contract to avoid confusion.

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