Here’s what the first two years of Horizon Europe look like in numbers (2023)

Success rates are up, UK and Swiss participation down, and Widening countries edge up to the EU 27 average. And on the third anniversary of Brexit, the UK’s five top universities, usually among the biggest winners of EU R&D funding, are feeling the pinch

Horizon Europe is heading into its third year, and the latest statistics offer a glimpse of how the EU is spending its €95.5 billion research funding pot.

To date, the Commission has disbursed €11.83 billion, or around 12.4% of the budget, in the first two years of the seven-year programme.

What is most startling about the data, is the impact of Brexit and the country’s subsequent non-association, on the level of UK participation, and in particular on its five leading universities. Despite a national safety net that replicates EU funding, participation by UK companies, universities and individuals has fallen by half.

Oxford University, which won €523 million over the seven years of Horizon 2020, has been awarded €2 million in the first two years of Horizon Europe. Cambridge University, recipient of a total of €483 million from Horizon 2020, has not received any Horizon Europe funding to date.

While the total amount of Horizon Europe funding disbursed so far may seem low, it is typical for the greatest proportion of the money to be handed out in the last few years of EU research programmes. The last framework programme, Horizon 2020, had an overall budget of €77 billion of which €13.5 billion, or 17%, was spent in 2020, the last year of the programme.

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On top of that, around 5% of the money committed to research in framework programmes does not make it to scientists each year, because the estimated project budgets end up not matching the EU’s actual contribution. Some of these so-called ‘decommitments’ are then returned to the €95.5 billion research budget. Since 2021, this ‘reconstituted’ money has come to €286 million.

On the bright side, with almost 5,000 grants signed, success rates are up. According to the latest (January) statistics, the number is just over 16%, up from 15.8% in July 2022. While many excellent proposals get turned away, the situation is better than Horizon 2020, where the success rate was 12%.

Here’s the breakdown of the rest of the biggest trends, with a note that the current numbers on the Horizon Dashboard include data on proposals and grants signed up until 5 December. The next update, which will include all 2022 data, is due mid-February.

Non-association hits UK participation hard

UK participation in Horizon Europe – that is the percentage of total participants the UK accounts for, not the absolute number - has fallen by half compared to Horizon 2020. Having been one of the top three countries by number of participating entities – be they individuals, universities or companies – the UK is now beaten by Belgium in the league table of Horizon Europe activity.

In one sense, this is hardly surprising. The UK is not associated to Horizon Europe, the result of a long-running saga of distrust and recrimination following Brexit that has meant the Commission is refusing to sign off on association, even though it was agreed in the UK exit treaty.

This means that UK-based researchers are not allowed to receive grants from the European Research Council, an area of the framework programme where they have traditionally excelled. They are still applying to the ERC and being successful – it’s just that while association isn’t agreed, UK winners are being funded by a replica scheme run by UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), not the ERC itself. This restriction accounts for some of the drop off in participation.

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But it may not explain all of it. UK researchers and companies are still allowed to take part in pillar 2 projects, the consortia tackling industrial and global challenges that account for the bulk of Horizon’s budget. However, the UK has fallen behind in this part of Horizon too, dropping from 6.8% of participations to 5%, tumbling from fifth to eighth in the league table of engagement.

And notably, UK overall participation has fallen much more steeply than for Switzerland, which is also not associated to Horizon Europe because of the dispute about its wider relationship with the EU.

"The scale of the drop in the UK’s participation in Horizon Europe is deeply concerning, both for UK universities and for European science as a whole,” said Paul Boyle, vice chancellor of Swansea University, and a board member of Universities UK. “While the UKRI funding guarantee is helpful, researchers need and deserve more certainty about the long-term status of the UK in Horizon Europe.”

UK participation has been declining since 2016

UK engagement in EU research has been waning since 2016, when the country voted to leave the EU. Normally, each year of a framework programme sees more engagement than the last, as it cranks into gear. But the opposite trend was visible for the UK in Horizon 2020.

Widening countries match EU average success rate

It is approaching a decade since the Widening participation and spreading excellence programme was launched with the goal of closing the innovation gap between Europe’s top and low performers.

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The extent to which Widening measures have worked is an open and ongoing debate, but the latest Horizon Europe figures do suggest a certain level of success in terms of the percentage of grant proposals from Widening countries that are accepted.

As the table above shows, the average success rate of Widening countries in obtaining funding through Horizon Europe is about equal to the EU 27 average, at just over 20%.

Slovakia and Latvia have so far had the highest proposal success rate under Horizon Europe of any EU member state, with the most successful non-Widening country, Belgium, having 23.65% of proposals accepted.

(The success rates for Widening countries and the EU27 average are higher than the 16%-plus figure given in the earlier table because that includes associated countries with lower success rates. For example, the success rate for Algeria is 8.3%).

Under Horizon 2020, the average success rate of Widening countries was 13.1%, compared to 13.9% for the EU 27 average.

The success rate under Horizon Europe has improved across the board, with various possible factors including increased funding, continuity from previous framework programmes, the non-participation of the UK and Switzerland, etc. You can read more about the reasons in our article here.

While this may seem positive for Widening countries, other metrics show just how far they have to go to close the innovation gap.

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The table below shows the percentage of total net EU contributions that Widening countries have received under Horizon Europe. The top-performing country, Germany, has proportionally received more than all of the Widening countries put together.

Biggest winners of Horizon Europe

With the UK and Switzerland out of Horizon Europe, the money flows to Europe’s biggest research institutions are changing – drastically so, in the case of the UK’s top five universities.

Aside from UK and Swiss institutions, most of the top 20 biggest beneficiaries in Horizon 2020 keep their place in the leaders’ table. France’s National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) remains the biggest beneficiary of Horizon Europe, thus far having secured €198 million, repeating its Horizon 2020 success.

UK and Swiss exclusion has allowed some of the bigger European universities, such as Aarhus University and Ghent University, to climb into the top 20.

Who’s out? University College London, University of Oxford, EPFL, Imperial College London, University of Edinburgh, University of Cambridge and ETH Zürich.

Who’s in? Aarhus University, GEANT - the association of European National Research and Education Networks, Ghent University, University of Vienna, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Oslo and France’s agricultural research institute INRAE.

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Editor’s note: this article has been amended to correct Paul Boyle’s position.


How long will Horizon Europe last? ›

Horizon Europe, is the new Framework Programme from the European Commission. It will run from 2021-2027, with a total budget of €95.5 billion. All work programmes have now been published and Catalyze has gathered all the essential information on this page.

What is Pillar 2 of Horizon Europe? ›

Horizon Europe – Pillar 2 Global challenges and European industrial competitiveness – 2021-2027. This pillar is the second Pillar of the 2021-2027 new research and innovation program Horizon Europe. It aims to boost key technologies and solutions underpinning EU policies & Sustainable Development Goals.

What is Horizon 2023 2024? ›

The Horizon Europe 2023-2024 also focus on EU digital transition, European energy independence, the contribution to the Next Generation EU and support to Ukraine. Lastly, it addresses global challenges and calls to the adoption of global solutions. Eager to learn more?

Which countries are eligible for Horizon Europe? ›

Countries associated with Horizon Europe:

Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Faroe Islands, Georgia, Iceland, Israel, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, North Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom and Ukraine.

Is USA eligible for Horizon Europe? ›

Horizon Europe is open to participants from all over the world, but there are a number of specific rules for international participants. In the following, you can find an outline of the most important rules to know when applying for funding in Horizon Europe.

What will happen in 2050 Europe? ›

The EU will see its share of world GDP fall by almost a half by 2050. Frequent food and oil crises will occur. EU Member States will become more inward-looking leading to inefficient fragmentation of effort that will touch every sector especially research – so vital for our future prosperity.

Who does Pillar 2 apply to? ›

Pillar 2 applies to the constituent entities (CEs), i.e., subsidiaries included in the consolidation and permanent establishments (PEs), including branch operations and entities that are disregarded for US income tax purposes.

What is the funding rate in Horizon Europe? ›

The rate is 70 percent for profit-making legal entities and 100 percent for non-profit legal entities.

What is Pillar 2 of the CAP? ›

Pillar 2 requires co-financing from member state governments. The EU describes the purposes of this as: fostering the competitiveness of agriculture. ensuring the sustainable management of natural resources.

What is Horizon Europe 2023 work Programme? ›

The Horizon Europe work programme 2023-24 has been adopted by the European Commission. The work programme will support research and innovation in numerous areas, including digital transformation, culture, energy resilience, health and the achievement of climate goals.

What countries aren't in the EU but want to join? ›

Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia have all been officially granted candidate status. Kosovo, which is not recognised by 5 EU states nor by Serbia, applied on 14 December 2022 and is considered a potential candidate by the European Union.

Which third country is not associated to Horizon Europe? ›

Switzerland now a non-associated third country in Horizon Europe – Staffnet | ETH Zurich.

Is Turkey part of Horizon Europe? ›

Turkey signed three agreements with the EU Commission for 2021-2027: the EU research and innovation program Horizon Europe, Erasmus+ and the European Solidarity Corps (ESC) As a European Union candidate, Turkey has been participating in the technology and innovation programmes of the EU for nearly 20 years.

Do Americans need sponsorship to work in Europe? ›

Citizens of the EU can work in any member country of the EU without a work permit, but Americans need an employer to sponsor their work visa.

Can I travel to the EU as a US citizen? ›

Currently, U.S. citizens can freely enter the Schengen Zone (an area of 26 countries covering much of Europe) for up to 90 days for business and/or tourism purposes. End of 2023, all U.S. citizens traveling to the 26 Schengen Zone countries will need to register with ETIAS or will risk being denied entry.

Are Americans allowed to cruise in Europe? ›

For now, vaccinated Americans can still travel to and cruise from Europe and -- because nearly every cruise line in Europe is requiring proof of full vaccination against COVID-19 -- those plans should remain unchanged (for now, anyway).

Which will be the best country to live in 2050? ›

15 Best Countries to Live in the Future
  • United Kingdom. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $49,675.3. ...
  • France. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $50,728.7. ...
  • Canada. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $52,085.0. ...
  • Finland. ...
  • Australia. ...
  • Germany. ...
  • Austria. ...
  • Belgium.
Oct 16, 2022

What problems will we face in 2050? ›

The economic impact to regions will be profound, and climate refugees could become the norm. Pressure is already growing on cities, as urban populations grow. If climate change forces mass migration, then existing infrastructure, services and economies may be stretched to breaking point.

Who will rule the world in 2050? ›

China is expected to hold on to the number one spot. In 2050, the Asian giant is forecast to have the largest economy on the planet. With an ageing population and an annual GDP growth rate averaging just 4.4%, however, China isn't projected to enjoy the exceptional economic growth it experienced during the 2000s.

What is the minimum tax rate for Pillar 2? ›

I am very pleased to announce that we agreed to adopt the directive on the Pillar 2 proposal today. Our message is clear: The largest groups of corporations, multinational or domestic, will need to pay a corporate tax that cannot be lower than 15%, globally.

What are Pillar 2 rules? ›

Pillar Two seeks to establish a global minimum corporate tax rate through a set of interlinked rules. Global anti-base erosion rules (GloBE rules) will impose top-up taxes where the effective rate of tax of a MNE in a jurisdiction is below the global minimum corporate tax rate (15%).

What are Pilar 2 rules? ›

Pillar Two introduces a global minimum Effective Tax Rate (ETR) via a system where multinational groups with consolidated revenue over €750m are subject to a minimum ETR of 15% on income arising in low-tax jurisdictions.

What is a normal funding rate? ›

In general, funding rates averaged at 0.015% across major exchanges. As mentioned, these rates vary based on changes in the price of its underlying asset.

How much money is in the EU Green Deal? ›

Taken together and extrapolated from 7 to 10 years, as well as assuming that the climate target post-2027 will be at least maintained, the EU budget will provide €503 billion to the European Green Deal Investment Plan.

What is the funding rate? ›

Funding rates are periodic payments between traders to make the perpetual futures contract price close to the index price, or the underlying crypto constituting the futures contract. A perpetual futures contract is an agreement to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price without an expiration date on the contract.

What is the purpose of the second pillar? ›

The Pillar Two Model Rules are designed to ensure large multinational enterprises (MNEs) pay a minimum level of tax on the income arising in each jurisdiction where they operate.

What are Pillar 2 risks? ›

The Pillar 2 requirement (P2R) is a bank-specific capital requirement which applies in addition to, and covers risks which are underestimated or not covered by, the minimum capital requirement (known as Pillar 1). A bank's P2R is determined on the basis of the Supervisory Review and Evaluation Process (SREP).

What is the meaning of Pillar 1? ›

Pillar 1 focuses on rules for taxing profits and rights, with a formula to calculate the proportion of earnings taxable within each relevant jurisdiction. Pillar 2 looks at global minimum tax levies of 15% to discourage companies from shifting profits to lower-tax countries through international trading structures.

What is Horizon Europe Work programme 2024? ›

The Commission has adopted today the main Horizon Europe work programme 2023-24, with around €13.5 billion to support researchers and innovators in Europe to pursue breakthrough solutions for environmental, energy, digital and geopolitical challenges.

How long will Europeans work for? ›

Eurostat's last report on Europeans' working longevity, released in 2020 and based on data gathered in 2019, found the average duration of a working life across the European Union was 35.2 years.

What are Horizon grants? ›

Horizon Europe is the ambitious EU research & innovation framework programme for 2021-2027 with a budget of €95.5 billion. Its overarching goals are: to strengthen the EU's scientific and technological bases and the European Research Area (ERA);

Why is Switzerland not a part of the EU? ›

It signed the agreement on 2 May 1992, and submitted an application for accession to the EU on 20 May 1992. However, after a Swiss referendum held on 6 December 1992 rejected EEA membership by 50.3% to 49.7%, the Swiss government decided to suspend negotiations for EU membership until further notice.

Why did Russia not join the EU? ›

Russia has chosen not to participate in the EU's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), as it aspires to be an "equal partner" of the EU (as opposed to the "junior partnership" that Russia sees in the ENP).

Why is Georgia not in the EU? ›

A European Union Monitoring Mission has been operating in Georgia since 2009. In January 2021, Georgia was preparing to formally apply for EU membership in 2024. However, on 3 March 2022, Georgia submitted its membership application ahead of schedule, following the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Is Israel in Horizon Europe? ›

In December 2021, Israel officially joined Horizon Europe (2021-2027) and we hope to see an ever-increased Israeli participation, including in collaborative projects.

Is Switzerland part of Horizon Europe? ›

Switzerland is currently not associated to Horizon Europe and is considered a “Third Country” to the programme. The Swiss Federal Council is committed to obtain full association to Horizon Europe before the end of the programme (2027).

Is UK part of Horizon Europe? ›

The UK's association to Horizon Europe

In January 2021, the government announced that the UK will associate to Horizon Europe. The EU is still in the process of formalising the UK's association, but UK-based applicants can begin applying straight away.

Is Norway eligible for Horizon Europe? ›

The EEA Agreement provides Norwegian environments with the opportunity to participate in the world's biggest research and innovation programme, Horizon Europe, on an equal footing with environments in the EU Member States.

Is Albania a third country? ›

Thus, from June 18, the EU's list of epidemiologically safe third countries consist of the following: Albania. Australia.

What is the European side of Turkey called? ›

The European portion of Turkey is known as Thrace, while the Asian is called Anatolia or Asia Minor; Istanbul straddles both as the world's only city located on two continents.

What is Horizon Europe 2023 work programme? ›

The Horizon Europe work programme 2023-24 has been adopted by the European Commission. The work programme will support research and innovation in numerous areas, including digital transformation, culture, energy resilience, health and the achievement of climate goals.

Is Horizon Forbidden West the last? ›

Will there be a sequel to Horizon Forbidden West? Absolutely. It's clear that PlayStation values the Horizon brand and world it's created, with Aloy becoming a central figure across PlayStation Studios, on the same level as Kratos from God of War, or Ellie in The Last of Us.

What is the EU call for proposals 2023? ›

Today, the Commission launched the call for proposals for 2023 under the Erasmus+ programme. With an annual budget of €4.2 billion, Erasmus+ is increasing its support for inclusion, active citizenship and democratic participation, and green and digital transformations in the EU and internationally.

How much older is Aloy in Horizon Forbidden West? ›

As such, Aloy could be anywhere from 18 to 19 by the time the story of Horizon Zero Dawn ends. Horizon Forbidden West then jumps ahead six months or so after Zero Dawn, pushing Aloy's age up to 19 or 20.

Will there be a DLC Horizon Forbidden West? ›

Horizon Forbidden West Burning Shores DLC release date

We got a release date for Burning Shores in December 2022, when Sony and Guerrilla confirmed that it's coming out on 19 April 2023. The downloadable content was unveiled at The Game Awards, gaming's annual awards and trailers showcase.

What is the max level in Horizon Forbidden West? ›

Horizon Forbidden West's max level is 50.

Once players make it to the final level for Aloy, they will no longer gain any XP, whether from fighting machines to doing side missions.

How much money does the EU give in foreign aid? ›

The EU is collectively the biggest donor for international aid in the world, providing over € 50 billion a year to help overcoming poverty and advance global development.

Which country is waiting to get into the EU? ›

There are eight recognised candidates for membership of the European Union: Turkey (since 1999), North Macedonia (2005), Montenegro (2010), Serbia (2012), Albania (2014), Moldova (2022), Ukraine (2022), and Bosnia and Herzegovina (2022).

Which country is next to join the EU? ›

Serbia and Montenegro have been described by former President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker and Enlargement commissioner Johannes Hahn as the frontrunner candidates, and projected that they would join by 2025, during the next mandate of the European Commission.

Do you need a visa for EU in 2023? ›

Once implemented in 2023, each and every traveler entering Europe without a visa will need one. The purpose of ETIAS is to enhance border security to the EU. It is designed for short-term (90 days or less) visits to the EU and will be required for entry to the EU after the projected ETIAS launch date of November 2023.


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